# Xavier Initialization Python Numpy

Python Numpy Tutorial. Links: notebook, html, PDF, python, slides, GitHub A logistic regression implements a convex partition of the features spaces. So, first, we must import numpy as np. In Python, data is almost universally represented as NumPy arrays. Linear Algebra, Fourier Transforms, Random Number Generation How to use the documentation-----Documentation is available in two forms: docstrings provided with the code, and a loose standing reference guide, available from `the NumPy homepage `_. It's possible to install Python and NumPy separately, however, if you're new to Python and NumPy I recommend installing the Anaconda distribution of Python which simplifies installation and gives you many additional useful packages. 导入Scipy子模块时报错，出现的问题都是提示 No module named 'numpy. Matplotlib can be used in Python scripts, the Python and IPython shells, the Jupyter notebook, web application servers, and four graphical user interface toolkits. Hope it helps :) It should be noted that I am using Python 3. This is assuming that the memmap array is too large to fit into memory. I have installed both modules using pip install and the installation was successful. It provides tools for handling n-dimensional arrays (especially vectors and matrices). This post should be quick as it is just a port of the previous Keras code. This is a port of the popular nninit for Torch7 by @kaixhin. For the remainder of this tutorial, we will assume that the import numpy as np has been used. randint(1,101,5) This produces an array of 5 numbers in which we can select from integers 1 to 100. Swift For TensorFlow supports Python interoperability. はじめに Grad-CAMについて。 github. Rasterio reads and writes these formats and provides a Python API based on N-D arrays. While it can be several kinds of functions, this nonlinearity maps a function called a "sigmoid". There are two new Deep Learning libraries being open sourced: Pytorch and Minpy. This the second part of the Recurrent Neural Network Tutorial. cpp, ln 1926): CV_Assert( scn + 1 == m. 6 and NumPy 1. This is still early development for the 2. When calling into 'Python', R data types are automatically converted to their equivalent 'Python' types. How to access data using raw pointers. In order to perform these numpy operations, the next question which will come in your mind is: How do I install NumPy? To install Python NumPy, go to your command prompt and type “pip install numpy”. PATH = ['~/anaconda3/bin', process. This API section details functions, modules, and objects included in MXNet, describing what they are and what they do. The NumPy Array. ROS与Python入门教程-使用numpy说明这一节介绍numpy，它是针对科学计算的python软件包, 用于处理传感器数据，数组数据等。在本教程中，我们将使用rospy. 乱数を発生させるライブラリは主に2つ。randomライブラリとNumPyのrandom 2つのライブラリの一番の違いは乱数の発生個数。 乱数の発生個数 randomモジュール ：乱数1個 numpyは配列の形をsize＝～の形のキーワード引数で乱数の個数を指定できる。. Specification. ” Interested in remote, part-time projects. Second, you can create new numpy arrays of a specified shape using the functions ones() and zeros(). NumPy can be used from Cython in exactly the same manner as in regular Python, however Cython also has a number of features that support fast access to NumPy arrays that can result in significant performance gains. (But indeed, everything that satisfies the Python buffer interface will work, even a str. rand¶ numpy. whl # Python 3. initializers. The Nd4j implementation is much slower than numpy. PythonとBoost. Say, you want to fill an array with all zeros or all ones. Many programmers who are new to Python are surprised to learn that base Python doesn't support arrays. It can be simply calculated with the help of numpy. One common initialization scheme for deep NNs is called Glorot (also known as Xavier) Initialization. Not a lot of people working with the Python scientific ecosystem are aware of the NEP 18 (dispatch mechanism for NumPy's high-level array functions). Thanks to all who were involved in this release. Numpy is a popular scientific computing package for Python. Dans notre script, nous allons définir une fonction init() et une fonction animate(). multivariate_normal function from numpy. Usually people will create it as list inside list. 0-cp36-cp36m-linux_aarch64. An object to be. The Nd4j implementation is much slower than numpy. Stata 16 introduces tight integration with Python. x works with Python versions 2. Initializer` and implementing the required functions like `_init_weight` and `_init_bias`. Some key differences between lists include, numpy arrays are of fixed sizes, they are homogenous I,e you can only contain. NumPy is a commonly used Python data analysis package. Numpy dot product. In fact, when we import SciPy we also get NumPy, as can be seen from this excerpt the SciPy initialization file:. One more thing numpy module installed with Pandas. py As you see, it is a tensor. A package for scientific computing with Python Brought [Numpy-discussion] Initialization of array? [Numpy-discussion] Initialization of array?. If you are new to Python, you may be confused by some of the pythonic ways of accessing data, such as negative indexing and array slicing. This way they are representing separate links to 5 separate matrices. py - however, it causes an exception at import time with numpy 1. This the second part of the Recurrent Neural Network Tutorial. Working Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 3. The following are code examples for showing how to use tensorflow. Alternatively, to use pyOpt from the current directory without installing it run: >>> python setup. initializers. All right, let's get started. NumPy (pronounced / ˈ n ʌ m p aɪ / (NUM-py) or sometimes / ˈ n ʌ m p i / (NUM-pee)) is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays. label (list, numpy 1-D array, pandas Series / one-column DataFrame or None, optional (default=None)) - Label of the data. Implementing different variants of Gradient Descent Optimization Algorithm in Python using Numpy. Stata 16 introduces tight integration with Python. rand (d0, d1, , dn) ¶ Random values in a given shape. In this section, we will understand and code up a neural network without using any deep learning library (from scratch using only python and numpy). If we want to initialize only a specific parameter in a different manner, we can simply set the initializer only for the appropriate subblock (or parameter). In our last Python Library tutorial, we studied Python SciPy. py:attribute:: paddle. 6 function named numpy to AWS, and the entry point for the numpy function is the main function in the handler. Below is a script you can use to reproduce the results from this article. By James McCaffrey. Don’t miss our FREE NumPy cheat sheet at the bottom of this post. Python arrays are powerful, but they can confuse programmers familiar with other languages. python - initialize - numpy empty array append A NumPy array is a very different data structure from a list and is designed to be used in different ways. A cheat sheet for scientific python. By using NumPy, you can speed up your workflow, and interface with other packages in the Python ecosystem, like scikit-learn, that use NumPy under the hood. 7 developers. In this article we will discuss how to find the minimum or smallest value in a Numpy array and it's indices using numpy. This is part 1 of the numpy tutorial covering all the core aspects of performing data manipulation and analysis with numpy's ndarrays. Simplified Code. How to Pad an Array with Zeros or Ones in Python using Numpy. Here are the examples of the python api utilsnn. Creating a new universal function; Example Non-ufunc extension; Example NumPy ufunc for one dtype; Example NumPy ufunc with multiple dtypes; Example NumPy ufunc with multiple. 0)。 但在终端启动python执行. For the weight filler, we will use the xavier algorithm that automatically determines the scale of initialization based on the number of input and output neurons. I already manage to install montepython by re-configuring/make python and using my step (1) and (6) in order to install numpy and scipy, thanks for your answers. Mathematically, a vector is a tuple of n real numbers where n is an element of the Real (R) number space. When calling into 'Python', R data types are automatically converted to their equivalent 'Python' types. The default order is 'K'. Numpy Arrays Getting started. Like before, first get the necessary headers, setup the namespaces and initialize the Python runtime and numpy module:. init_high – Higher bound for random initialization of factors. Numeric, the ancestor of NumPy, was developed by Jim Hugunin. PATH = ['~/anaconda3/bin', process. NumPy is, just like SciPy, Scikit-Learn, Pandas, etc. Welcome to NumPy!¶ NumPy (Numerical Python) is an open source Python library that's used in almost every field of science and engineering. Understand self and __init__ method in python Class? self represents the instance of the class. fromiter can take any iterable, if your class implements __iter__, you can pass it to numpy. I just ran into a situation where I compiled and installed Python 2. Learn deep learning and deep reinforcement learning math and code easily and quickly. But the first way doesn't. It takes a Python module annotated with a few interface description and turns it into a native Python module with the same interface, but (hopefully) faster. data (string, numpy array, pandas DataFrame, H2O DataTable's Frame, scipy. See Working with Python arrays. Using numpy with rospy Description: This tutorial covers using numpy with rospy, the ROS Python client library. We can initialize numpy arrays from nested Python lists and access it elements. 2、因为脚本没有用到numpy所以以为可以pip uninstall unmpy解决，但事实错了，opencv3是依赖于numpy的，到官网opencv-python 3. I had a python file in my exercise folder named numbers. glorot_normal keras. This is Convolutional Neural Network only in python & numpy. Therefore this tutorial may not work on earlier versions of Python. You could directly do it like this: Other things that might be interesting for you are: # List comprehension (standard python) to convert strings to floats produces [1. linalg , as detailed in section Linear algebra operations: scipy. Data manipulation in Python is nearly synonymous with NumPy array manipulation: even newer tools like Pandas are built around the NumPy array. This is necessary to understand how the underlying structure works. svd indeed produces unitary matrix as it is stated in its manual, and. Those two libraries are different from the existing libraries like TensorFlow and Theano in the sense of how we do the computation. 3) Python-based scientific environment:. The idea is to initialize each weight with a small Gaussian value with mean = 0. 1/numpy/distuti. (13 replies) Hi, There's buildout 1. While Python is a robust general-purpose programming language, its libraries targeted towards numerical computation will win out any day when it comes to large batch operations on arrays. How to make a dendrogram in Python with Plotly. Based on the code given here (careful - the updated version of Keras uses 'initializers' instead of 'initializations' according to fchollet), I've put together an attempt. This API can be used to create and manipulate Numpy arrays from C, when writing a custom C-extension. It is the foundation … - Selection from Python for Data Analysis [Book]. You could directly do it like this: Other things that might be interesting for you are: # List comprehension (standard python) to convert strings to floats produces [1. homebrewの方のnumpyをアップデートした時に何か問題が起きたか、pythonの他のモジュールと競合がおこるようなったかでしょうか。 当方のpython環境は、pyenvを使って構築したpython2. Creating a new universal function; Example Non-ufunc extension; Example NumPy ufunc for one dtype; Example NumPy ufunc with multiple dtypes; Example NumPy ufunc with multiple. In statistics, a mixture model is a probabilistic model for density estimation using a mixture distribution. This GitHub repository includes many short audio excerpts for your convenience. cpp, ln 1926): CV_Assert( scn + 1 == m. xavier_uniform_(tensor, gain=1) # From - Understanding the difficulty of training deep feedforward neural networks - Bengio 2010. ndarrayの初期化については以下の記事を参照。関連記事: NumPyで全要素を同じ値で初期化した配列ndarrayを生成 ここでは以下の内容について説明する。空リストを作成 任意の値・要素数で初期化 2次元配列. NeuPy supports many different types of Neural Networks from a simple perceptron to deep learning models. In particular gcc 3. 这种工具可用来存储和处理大型矩阵，比python自身的嵌套列表结构要高效的多。但是在使用Numpy时可能出错：ImportError: No module named numpy，解决办法，下载安装对应版本的Numpy程序。我的Python版本为2. 2] Also lookup the documentation for numpy. # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-"""Example NumPy style docstrings. This method has helped accelerate the field of deep learning in a big way. * Many activation functions and optimizers are available. Subscribe to this blog. I am going to send a C++ array to a Python function as NumPy array and get back another NumPy array. In fact, when we import SciPy we also get NumPy, as can be seen from this excerpt the SciPy initialization file:. full() in Python 2019-01-21T23:00:48+05:30 Numpy, Python No Comment In this article we will discuss how to create a Numpy Array of different shapes and initialized with same identical values using numpy. We can handle it in traditional way using python. The main features of NumpyDL are as follows: 1. What is a view of a NumPy array?¶ As its name is saying, it is simply another way of viewing the data of the array. The motivation for Xavier initialization in Neural Networks is to initialize the weights of the network so that the neuron activation functions are not starting out in saturated or dead regions. NumPy provides a high-performance multidimensional array object and tools for working with these arrays. arange(5) To initialize big_array, use. 3 can be programmed using Python and the SimPy simulation library[1]. 7-64bit，可以下载对应的Numpy安装即可。 Python-Numpy2. An intuitive explanation of the Xavier Initialization for Deep Neural Networks Posted by Mehrdad August 9, 2016 August 9, 2016 Posted in Uncategorized The motivation for Xavier initialization in Neural Networks is to initialize the weights of the network so that the neuron activation functions are not starting out in saturated or dead regions. Generate a same random number using seed. See this example, training an RBM using Gnumpy. com/courses/machine-learning/informationals/predict-a-yelp-rating-regression Hi all, I am currently working on the yelp regression project in. 5, installing of "VC++ 2017 version 15. Can be an integer, an array (or other sequence) of integers of any length, or ``None``. Given the importance of this protocol, I decided to write this short introduction to the new dispatcher that will certainly bring a lot of benefits for the Python scientific ecosystem. NumPyはシンプルにPythonのnumpy. The bar plots were made with matplotlib and seaborn, where the functions are ordered by the number of unique repositories containing instances. 9 series and while care is taken to keep the development branch functional at all times, and this documentation up-to-date, temporary issues may appear: please remember that this is software under development. The sub-module numpy. Or the fastest way is using Numpy from Scipy library. Besides the weird concat operation, other nd4j operations are all at least 5-6 times slower than their numpy counterpart. best initialization techniques like Xavier and He initialization. This is part 1 of the numpy tutorial covering all the core aspects of performing data manipulation and analysis with numpy's ndarrays. I got this error when compiling numpy 1. Numba makes Python code fast Numba is an open source JIT compiler that translates a subset of Python and NumPy code into fast machine code. LSTMBias ([forget_bias]) Initialize all biases of an LSTMCell to 0. array(matrix_instance, copy = False). NumPy is a Python library used in data science and big data that works with arrays when performing scientific computing with Python. ndarrays can be created in a variety of ways, include empty arrays and zero filled arrays. sparse or list of numpy arrays) – Data source of Dataset. The cheat sheet focuses on the scientific/data Python tools, e. I already manage to install montepython by re-configuring/make python and using my step (1) and (6) in order to install numpy and scipy, thanks for your answers. Xavier Initialization initializes the weights in your network by drawing them from a distribution with zero mean and a specific variance, Numpy Initialization. You could directly do it like this: Other things that might be interesting for you are: # List comprehension (standard python) to convert strings to floats produces [1. A blob is just a named chunk of data in memory. This guide, however, assumes that you have a basic idea about what python classes are. It's possible to install Python and NumPy separately, however, if you're new to Python and NumPy I recommend installing the Anaconda distribution of Python which simplifies installation and gives you many additional useful packages. Numpy arrays are great alternatives to Python Lists. It is commonly used in machine learning and data science for a variety of calculations. LeakyReLU, etc… and some best initialization techniques like Xavier and He initialization. big_array = numpy. This way they are representing separate links to 5 separate matrices. NumpyDL is a work in progress, input is welcome. False to disable support for NumPy style docstrings. Ok i found my fault. Most popular Pandas, Pandas. These are used for profiling, debugging, and coverage analysis tools. はじめに Pythonで作ったnumpy. Pure in Numpy 2. The following are code examples for showing how to use tensorflow. Descriptor for the initialization pattern. Implementing Different Variants of Gradient Descent Optimization Algorithm in Python using Numpy. In fact, when we import SciPy we also get NumPy, as can be seen from this excerpt the SciPy initialization file:. While the NumPy and TensorFlow solutions are competitive (on CPU), the pure Python implementation is a distant third. There are many existing Python functions that have been created to process NumPy arrays, the most noted being contained in the SciPy scientific computing package for Python. Used by thousands of students and professionals from top tech companies and research institutions. In particular gcc 3. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. This post will go through an example of how to use numpy for dot product. Xavier or variance scaling for weight initialization. This way they are representing separate links to 5 separate matrices. I've included the code that has multiple bugs in it. In this section, we will understand and code up a neural network without using any deep learning library (from scratch using only python and numpy). Don't miss our FREE NumPy cheat sheet at the bottom of this post. Rasterio 1. Can someone post some example of using this batched LSTM for training over a dataset? I'm new to the domain and I have learned a lot by reading this well written code, but when it is time to use it in a real learning situation I find problems. This module demonstrates documentation as specified by the `NumPy Documentation HOWTO`_. Because NumPy is written in C code, it’s also incredibly fast to do:. Numpy has built-in functions that allows us to do this in Python. ) (note: does not work, if numeric is installed). Varun January 21, 2019 Create Numpy Array of different shapes & initialize with identical values using numpy. If we want to initialize only a specific parameter in a different manner, we can simply set the initializer only for the appropriate subblock (or parameter). You can convert a Pandas DataFrame to Numpy Array to perform some high-level mathematical functions. SimplePythonCNN. Say, you want to fill an array with all zeros or all ones. Here are the examples of the python api numpy. Journaldev. 2、因为脚本没有用到numpy所以以为可以pip uninstall unmpy解决，但事实错了，opencv3是依赖于numpy的，到官网opencv-python 3. Man schneidet sich gewissermaßen eine "Scheibe" aus einem sequentiellen Datentyp oder einem Array heraus. In this article, I want to share some tools and examples for Caffe’s Python interface, called pyCaffe, and useful links and resources. By voting up you can indicate which examples are most useful and appropriate. The above function is used to make a numpy array with elements in the range between the start and stop value and num_of_elements as the size of the numpy array. It draws samples from a truncated normal distribution centered on 0 with stddev = sqrt(2 / fan_in) where fan_in is the number of input units in the weight tensor. NeuPy supports many different types of Neural Networks from a simple perceptron to deep learning models. If you are using Python arrays instead of numpy arrays, you don’t need to check if the data is stored contiguously as this is always the case. This way they are representing separate links to 5 separate matrices. This is useful to get the same initialization over multiple calls to fit(). This is a basic service called numpy-test. Matplotlib can be used in Python scripts, the Python and IPython shells, the Jupyter notebook, web application servers, and four graphical user interface toolkits. One feature that significantly simplifies writing GPU kernels is that Numba makes it appear that the kernel has direct access to NumPy arrays. LSTMBias ([forget_bias]) Initialize all biases of an LSTMCell to 0. Returns an initializer performing "Xavier" initialization for weights. Merging, appending is not recommended as Numpy will create one empty array in the size of arrays being merged and then just copy the contents into it. Python - Numpy array shape and reshaping arrays Open Source Options. The sub-module numpy. With that in mind, let's explore how we can represent a 3D design, display it to the screen, and interact with it, in 500 lines of Python. This the second part of the Recurrent Neural Network Tutorial. A Kalman Filtering is carried out in two steps: Prediction and Update. A marked difference can appear with only 3-4 layers in the network. Generate a same random number using seed. Parameters: initializer - initializer whose output_rank and filter_rank parameters are to be overriden; output_rank (int) - new output rank value; filter_rank (int) - new filter rank value. Used by thousands of students and professionals from top tech companies and research institutions. If we refer solely on the Glorot's and He's initializations papers, they both use a similar theoritical analysis: they find a good variance for the distribution from which the initial parameters are drawn. Source Code: Matrix Multiplication using Nested Loop. 5 (included), Pythran was supporting Python 3 and Python 2. How to Pad an Array with Zeros or Ones in Python using Numpy. Besides the weird concat operation, other nd4j operations are all at least 5-6 times slower than their numpy counterpart. We can initialize numpy arrays from nested Python lists and access it elements. Unfortunately, as of the time this post was written, Google hasn't heard much about "the xavier algorithm". round(a) round(a). The key to making it fast is to use vectorized operations, generally implemented through NumPy's universal functions (ufuncs). Weight initialization is an active research area and will be a topic for a future "Nothing but Numpy" blog. True to parse NumPy style docstrings. seed: A Python integer. to_numpy() is applied on this DataFrame and the method returns Numpy ndarray. _distributor_init' 具体代码见下方。 直接安装Anaconda（注意python. xavier_initializer(). By the end of this tutorial, you will have a working NN in Python, using only numpy, which can be used to learn the output of logic gates (e. data (string, numpy array, pandas DataFrame, H2O DataTable's Frame, scipy. The idea is to initialize each weight with a small Gaussian value with mean = 0. e the resulting elements are the log of the corresponding element. This is useful to get the same initialization over multiple calls to fit(). 파이썬을 이용한 데이터 분석을 하기 위해서는 pandas 뿐만 아니라 numpy를 익혀야만 보다 호율적인 데이. Initialize cvui. The main data structure in NumPy is the ndarray, which is a shorthand name for N-dimensional array. Journaldev. The main difference is that numpy. Section 10 - Implementing a Neural Network from Scratch with Python and Numpy. The driving force behind many of the design decisions in a 3D modeller is the rendering process. The goals of the chapter are to introduce SimPy, and to hint at the experiment design and analysis issues that will be covered in later chapters. In the attached source code, I showed the cumulative result of first 4 steps of computation The time is in secs. zeros() in Python; Why is Python the Best-Suited Programming Language for Machine Learning? How to Start Learning Machine Learning? 12 Reasons Why You Should Learn Python in 2019. In fact, when we import SciPy we also get NumPy, as can be seen from this excerpt the SciPy initialization file:. 这种工具可用来存储和处理大型矩阵，比python自身的嵌套列表结构要高效的多。但是在使用Numpy时可能出错：ImportError: No module named numpy，解决办法，下载安装对应版本的Numpy程序。我的Python版本为2. numpy에서 배열은 동일한 타입의 값들을 가지며, 배열의 차원을 rank 라 하고, 각 차원의 크기를 튜플로 표시하는 것을 shape 라 한다. This initializer is designed to keep the scale of the gradients roughly the same in all layers. Letztere Bedeutung entspricht auch der Arbeitsweise des Teilbereichsoperators in Python und NumPy. Understand self and __init__ method in python Class? self represents the instance of the class. Here are the examples of the python api utilsnn. Implementation of Kalman Filter with Python Language Mohamed LAARAIEDH IETR Labs, University of Rennes 1 Mohamed. Defaults to True. Moreover, we will cover the data types and array in NumPy. # serverless. 0, install OpenBLAS $ sudo apt-get install libopenblas-base # Python 2. WinPython is a free open-source portable distribution of the Python programming language for Windows XP/7/8, designed for scientists, supporting both 32bit and 64bit versions of Python 2 and Python 3. Xavier Initialization initializes the weights in your network by drawing them from a distribution with zero mean and a specific variance, Numpy Initialization. Matrix obtained is a specialised 2D array. Numba makes Python code fast Numba is an open source JIT compiler that translates a subset of Python and NumPy code into fast machine code. big_array = numpy. You can still use _InnerPredictor as init_model for future continue training. Script With All Covariance (+ Numpy* & PyDAAL) Code. Communication of generic Python objects. See Working with Python arrays. This method called when an object is created from the class and it allow the class to initialize. Numpy is the most basic and a powerful package for scientific computing and data manipulation in python. sqrt(1/(ni+no)) Why does this initialization help prevent gradient problems? This sort of initialization helps to set the weight matrix neither too bigger than 1, nor too smaller than 1. NDArray supports fast execution on a wide range of hardware configurations and automatically parallelizes multiple operations across the available hardware. Before we move on to more advanced things time for a quick recap of the basics. A list is a mutable container. The key to making it fast is to use vectorized operations, generally implemented through NumPy's universal functions (ufuncs). They are from open source Python projects. Tag: python,arrays,numpy. array(matrix_instance, copy = False). Xavier is the recommended weight initialization method for sigmoid and tanh activation function. Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms. The difficulty is using it like a numpy array, and not just as a ctypes array. FusedRNN (init, num_hidden, num_layers, mode) Initialize parameters for fused rnn layers. py from ECE 470 at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign. 9。numpyはpipで導入したもので、バージョンは1. Numpy Arrays Getting started. Section 10 – Implementing a Neural Network from Scratch with Python and Numpy. xavier_initializer(). XavierNormal — NeuPy. We then create a variable named randnums and set it equal to, np. 9% chance of not working with Maya's Python. Moreover, we will cover the data types and array in NumPy. Reduce is a really useful function for performing some computation on a list and returning the result. Specification. Communication of generic Python objects. homebrewの方のnumpyをアップデートした時に何か問題が起きたか、pythonの他のモジュールと競合がおこるようなったかでしょうか。 当方のpython環境は、pyenvを使って構築したpython2. Edit: If you don't know the size of big_array in advance, it's generally best to first build a Python list using append, and when you have everything collected in the list, convert this list to a numpy. Weight Initialization : HE Normal. 2] Also lookup the documentation for numpy. Computation on NumPy arrays can be very fast, or it can be very slow. Weight Initialization : HE Normal. By using the "self" keyword we can access the attributes and methods of the class in python. 2、因为脚本没有用到numpy所以以为可以pip uninstall unmpy解决，但事实错了，opencv3是依赖于numpy的，到官网opencv-python 3. Numpy is the most basic and a powerful package for scientific computing and data manipulation in python.